Simmons Shanghainese Romanization


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Initials

 

IPA

Simmons

p

b

p

b

m

m

f

f

v

v

t

d

t

d

n

n

ȵ

n

l

l

ʦ

dz

ʦʻ

ts

s

s

z

z

ʨ

j

ʨʻ

ch

ʥ

ɕ

sh

ʑ

zy

k

g

k

g

ŋ

ng

h

h

ɦ

/y/w

Zero

zero/y/w

 

Open Finals

 

IPA

Simmons

ɿ

i

i/yi

u

u/wu

y

/y

a

iᴀ

ia/ya

uᴀ

ua/wa

ɔ

aw

iaw/yaw

o

uo/wo (no -u- after labials)

ɤ

eu

ieu/yeu

ae

iᴇ

iae/yae

uᴇ

uae/wae

oe

u

uoe/woe

y

oe/yoe

 

Nasal Finals

 

IPA

Simmons

i

i/y

u

u/w

ɑ̃

w

iɑ̃

iw/yw

uɑ̃

uw/ww

ən

en

in

in/yin

uən

uen/wen

yn

n/yn

ong

ioŋ

iong/yong

 

R Tone Finals

 

IPA

Simmons

ʔ

aq

iʔ

iaq/yaq

uʔ

uaq/waq

oq

i

ioq/yoq

əʔ

eq

uəʔ

ueq/weq

iɪʔ

iq/yiq

yɪʔ

eq/yeq

 

Syllabics and er

 

IPA

Simmons

m̃

ŋ̍

g

əl

er


 Tones

Tones are marked on the 1st syllable of words
(and there are no tone marks on subsequent syllables of multi-syllable words).


  • 阴平 marked with falling accent ` (actually the only tone mark that is necessary)
  • 阴上/去 marked with rising accent and voiceless initials
  • (平、上、去) marked with rising accent and voiced initials
  • 阴入 marked with level mark and final stop q [ʔ]
  • 阳入 has no tone mark and final stop q [ʔ]

Copyright 2012 by Richard VanNess Simmons, all rights reserved