A Visual Index to Captain America Comics

The 1940s Captain America

This began as a page of MicroHeroes drawn from the 1998 two-volume reprint of the Simon and Kirby Captain America stories from the 1940s, Captain America: The Classic Years.  It's now expanded into an ongoing visual index of all the Cap adventures (and, by extension, those of Bucky and the Young Allies). Some of the information provided here is sketchy, and making MicroHeroes of all the major characters is an ongoing project. As I can find visual references for the characters in these stories, I'll add them.

By the way, those who may have seen some of these stories in 1960s reprints in Fantasy Masterpieces may be interested to note that some items acceptable in the '40s were touched up for the '60s. The Butterfly, for example, originally stabbed his victims with his long snout; the reprint implied he just leapt at them and knocked them down. The Hunchback of Hollywood, who in his original splash panel was portrayed as a drooling, acromegalic monstrosity, was toned down to simpler deformity for the '60s. And Igan and Gorro had their fangs pulled, literally as well as figuratively: Igan was redrawn to have two eyes, and Gorro had a rounder, more ape-like face. 

Part 1: The War Years

Comic Source
Name and Image

Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941): "Case No. 1. -- Meet Captain America"

Agent X-13 unnamed Nazi spy Professor Reinstein Captain America Private Steve Rogers Mascot Bucky Barnes Bucky

Agent X-13 was a young woman masquerading as the aged proprietress of a curio shop. Behind the shop was the secret lab of the super-soldier project.

The spy snuck into the secret lab as a high-ranking government official. He killed Prof. Reinstein but died while attempting to flee Captain America.

Prof. Reinstein developed the super-soldier formula America hoped to use against the Nazi menace. He was assassinated before making the formula known.

Steve Rogers was an Army reject who volunteered for the super-soldier project as an alternative way of serving his country, being injected with the only sample of the formula. When the formula sample proved successful, the U.S. government decided to outfit him as a symbol of America and put him to work as a special agent.

The newly muscular Steve Rogers was placed into Camp Lehigh as a private, where, apparently, high officials kept him free from military red tape so that he could act on his own when he saw the need.

Camp mascot Bucky Barnes burst in on Steve Rogers as he was changing into his Captain America uniform. In those heady days of wanton child endangerment, Cap decided Bucky had to learn to fight by his side.

Apparently, no one ever associated Captain America's sidekick Bucky with the Bucky of Camp Lehigh, even though Cap operated around Lehigh as often as not. Chalk it up to those unnamed officials acting as watchdogs.

I'm adding the covers of the comic issue to the entry for the story depicted on the cover. Sometimes, the cover shows a symbolic, rather than an actual, scene from the story, as has happened here.
Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941): untitled #1

Sando Omar F.B.I. Agent Betty Ross
Sando and Omar were the first Cap villains, beyond the origin story. Sando was a Nazi agent who hypnotized the idiotic and innocent Omar into "predicting" acts of sabotage shortly before they happened.

Betty Ross was a government agent assigned to the Sando and Omar case. She encountered Cap frequently. In later issues, she was apparently dating Sgt. Duffy and had casual contempt for the goldbricking Private Rogers. In still later ones, she became Steve's friend.
Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941): untitled #2

Rathcone was a Nazi chess master, also adept at manipulating people like chess pieces and thus in charge of a spy ring.
Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941): "The Riddle of the Red Skull"

The Red Skull
The Red Skull was a Nazi saboteur and assassin. He became Captain America's greatest foe, coming back every few issues. In his first story, he was unmasked as aircraft manufacturer George Maxon and died from his own poisoned weapon. Apparently, as with The Joker, someone recognized greatness, and the artists resurrected the villain for later use.

Captain America Comics #2 (April 1941): "The Ageless Orientals Who Wouldn't Die!"

Benson an Ageless Oriental
Benson was a banker who discovered the giant Ageless Orientals in the silent Himalayas. They were unable to be killed except by an explosive sound louder than a gunshot.
Captain America Comics #2 (April 1941): "Trapped in the Nazi Stronghold"

Adolph Hitler
Hermann Goering
To rescue an influential patriot, Cap and Bucky go to Germany, where, in the course of beating up on generic Nazis, they also got to wallop Adolph Hitler and Hermann Goering. This is the fat Goering as portrayed in the comic. I have no idea what he really looked like.
Captain America Comics #2 (April 1941): "The Wax Statue That Struck Death"

The Wax Man

The Wax Man was Mayor Dobbs, a fifth columnist who led a brigade of US-based Nazi soldiers driving Super Tanks based in vast underground bunkers (it says here...). In his spare time, he murdered military commanders either by suffocating them in wax deathmasks of their own faces or by kidnapping and decapitating them, keeping their heads in his wax museum.
Captain America Comics
#3 (May 1941): "The Return of the Red Skull"

The Red Skull
The story opens with the Red Skull rising from where he was left for dead, declaring himself immune to his own poisons. This would become a common event: Cap would believe the Skull dead, but he'd return in a later story, sometimes with an explanation as to how he did it.

Here, the revived Skull resumes terrorizing military men, invades a baseball game with his Power Drill (a train-like vehicle with a drilling nose), and takes time out to hang a couple of con men, who are impersonating Cap and Bucky, because he mistook them for the real thing.

You'll note the slightly different Red Skull micro-hero shown here, compared to the one for his first appearance. As part of the learning process, I've decided to do a new Skull micro for each appearance, showing variations in color and design, and often with a significant prop from the story.
Captain America Comics #3 (May 1941): "The Hunchback of Hollywood and the Movie Murder"

The Hunchback of Hollywood

This was a "Phantom of the Opera"/"Clayface I" type of story. A movie production was being sabotaged by a hunchbacked figure. The Hunchback of Hollywood was handsome actor Craig Talbot, a Nazi sympathizer who opposed the film's anti-tyranny message, and not horror actor "Barloff", who played the hunchback in the film. Quel suprise!
Captain America Comics #3 (May 1941): "The Queer Case of the Murdering Butterfly and the Ancient Mummies"

The Butterfly Lenny
The Butterfly was Dr. Vitrioli, a museum curator who was robbing his own museum. (Why he picked a butterfly as a costumed identity is a mystery. He wasn't stealing butterfly collections...) Lenny was Dr. V's assistant, "a human derrick", one guard called him.
Captain America Comics #4 (June 1941): "The Unholy Legion"

Herr Snupp
The Unholy Legion
The Unholy Legion were a band of fifth columnists masquerading as beggars, street vendors, and general underclass types. Under the command of Herr Snupp, the Beggar Leader, they killed important defense figures and cheated sympathetic Americans who thought they were helping the truly poor and crippled.

I give you Snupp, who branded both his own agents and law enforcement types (before killing them) with a swastika, and three unnamed murderous beggars: a strangler/news vendor, a cripple with a crutch gun, and a "Poisoned Apple Annie".

All in all, a rather disturbing class warfare concept, especially so close to the Great Depression.

Captain America Comics #4 (June 1941): "Ivan the Terrible"

Ivan the Terrible
Cap and Bucky face Ivan the Terrible, who deposed a kingdom's rightful ruler, the just King Peter Ross, and set himself up. After beating Ivan, it turns out... It Was All A Dream!
Captain America Comics #4 (June 1941): "The Case of the Fake Money Fiends"

The Fake Money Fiends Sergeant Michael Duffy
Counterfeiters operating in Hillsdale kept snoopers away from the old house that was their base by dressing as ghosts. Seems to me that would have attracted more curiosity than chased it away, but, hey, I didn't grow up in those times.

(And they would have gotten away with it ...)

Many early Cap stories were inspired by movies. The source that first had counterfeiters playing as ghosts seems to be a 1924 Buster Keaton silent, "The Haunted House".

While an unnamed sergeant gave Pvt. Rogers a hard time as early as the Rathcone story, the recurring character with this name first appeared in this story. In the comics, the privates were often playing practical jokes on the sergeant, and the innocent Pvt. Rogers invariably was blamed for them, probably because Rogers managed to have a true accident involving Duffy every other issue.

In later issues, Steve and/or Bucky actually did play tricks on Duffy, and, still later, Duffy was treated with a bit more respect.

Captain America Comics #4 (June 1941): "Horror Hospital"

Dr. Grimm and Igan Gorro
Dr. Grimm ran a remote private hospital where he kept madmen among his other patients and experimented on all. Igan, here, is one of the doctor's early experiments. 

Dr. Grimm's main experiment was Gorro, a gigantic humanoid monster whom he kept alive with the blood of unwilling donors, usually nurses in Grimm's employ.

All-Winners Comics
#1 (Summer 1941): "The Case of the Hollow Men"

                          Lord of Death The
                          Hollow Man
The Lord of Death The Hollow Men
The self-styled Lord of Death tricked Bowery bums into his lab, where he replaced their blood with his "di-namo fluid", which gave them super-vitality and immunity to death for 24 hours.  (Presumably, after the 24 hours were up, they did die.) He then sent them on destructive missions against US. military suppliers.

The bums were only referred to as "the Hollow Men" in the title.  In the story, they were just "zombies".

All-Winners Comics was an interesting expansion of the Timely comics line. We'd already had the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner spin off out of Marvel (Mystery) Comics and into their own titles, and Cap debuted in his own title. This gives  Torch and Subby three venues and Cap his second. (The Angel was popular enough to appear in Sub-Mariner as well as Marvel Mystery Comics.  The Black Marvel? <shrug>)

Where Cap appears in these anthology titles, don't expect there to be any relation between the cover and the story.

Young Allies Comics
#1 (Summer 1941): "The Coming of Agent Zero"

Red Skull
The Red Skull Agent Zero Human Torch Human Torch (flaming)
Bucky leads a local chapter of the Sentinels of Liberty (Timely's Captain America fan club) to rescue Agent Zero, a British agent, from Nazis. Toro, the Human Torch's kid sidekick, helps out, and the kids form the Young Allies to help the agent. The Red Skull steps in, things escalate, and the Allies take a per-chapter whirlwind tour of war venues (the Home Front, Berlin, the Russian Front, Hong Kong, and back to the USA) with Agent Zero.

At the last minute, Captain America and the Human Torch (apparently their first meeting in the comics) step in and wrap things up.

So not only do the major heroes appear in stories in All-Winners Comics, but now the major sidekicks get their own series, splashing the market.
Young Allies Comics #1 (Summer 1941): "The Coming of Agent Zero"
Toro Henry "Tubby" Tinker Jeff Sandervilt Aloysius Percival "Knuckles" O'Toole "Whitewash" Jones
Plotwise, not a bad "kid gang" adventure. However, what I assume was the publisher's goal of having the members represent all major demographics of their readership (the fat kid, the rich kid, the tough kid) results in the inclusion of a Black stereotype: "Whitewash Jones, who can make a harmonica talk." ("Yeah man! I is also good on de watermelon!") You have to give Timely credit for including a Black kid in their gang (DC's Newsboy Legion and Boy Commandos, for example, did not), but the result is at least embarassing, and often offensive, to modern readers. I wouldn't have expected to see a Young Allies Masterworks because of that, but one came out in July 2009.

In case you weren't aware, Toro was the Human Torch's kid sidekick (which is why one of his hands is aflame), and he and Bucky often had fights in this series over which of the adult heroes were the best.
Captain America Comics
#5 (August 1941): "The Ringmaster of Death"

The Ringmaster of Death
The Ringmaster was a Nazi agent whose wheel of chance dictated the night's assassination victim. Other than controlling a circus full of Nazi performers, he had no abilities. Looks a lot like the Hulk/Spidey Ringmaster, though, doesn't he? (Later Marvel stories made him the father of that Ringmaster.)
Captain America Comics #5 (August 1941): "The Gruesome Secret of the Dragon of Death"

Captain Okada
Captain Okada commanded a secret weapon of the Japanese navy: the Sea Dragon, a giant, ship-swallowing submarine.

Hey, it's Cap's first Japanese villain, and he isn't a racist caricature! That's because Pearl Harbor hadn't happened yet. Things got vicious immediately after that.

The Sea Dragon sub returned in a 1990's Invaders story, and the idea itself was reused in another Cap story later in the 1940s.
Captain America Comics #5 (August 1941): "Killers of the Bund"

The Bund
The Bund was an actual pro-Nazi German- American organization of the WW2 period. Captain America and Bucky fought some Bund agents who were threatening loyal Americans Hendrich and Bob Shmidt.
Captain America Comics #5 (August 1941): "The Terror That Was Devil's Island"

Pepo Laroc
Pepo Laroc was the brutal overseer of Devil's Island, the infamous French prison camp.  He was put in charge by the Vichy government after the Nazis conquered France, so that prisoners of war could experience his cruelty.

Like many Simon/Kirby stories of the '40s, this was inspired by a movie, 1939's Devil's Island.
Captain America Comics #6 (September 1941): "The Camera Fiend and His Darts of Doom"

The Camera Fiend
The Camera Fiend led a gang of crooks who were attempting to steal the British Crown Jewels, which were on tour in America.  His innocent- seeming camera fired poisoned needles.  He was actually Bucky's teacher, Lucius Hall.
Captain America Comics #6 (September 1941): "Meet the Fang, Arch-Fiend of the Orient"

The Fang
The Fang was a Chinese warlord, ruler of a tong (a criminal Chinese secret society) in America.  The Japanese Baron Nushima hired his hatchet-men to eliminate two Chinese emissaries seeking a loan from the U.S. to help fight Japanese aggression in China.

While Fang never appeared again, in the 1960s Cap recalled his having died at Hiroshima.  I thought that was a nice touch.
Captain America Comics
#6 (September 1941): "The Strange Case of Who Killed Doctor Vardoff?"

The Hangman
The Hangman systematically eliminated anyone who stood between him and control of the super-strong silk invented by Dr. Vardoff -- and there was quite a list: Vardoff himself, his assistant Ludwig, businessman Dino Cardi, and a mobster's gun moll, all of whom felt the grip of his noose of super-silk.  Actually, the Hangman was Vardoff himself, who wanted nothing more than to be left alone to do his research.

All-Winners Comics
#2 (Fall 1941): "The Strange Case of the Malay Idol"
Kuoli, King of the Islands Malay chieftain
Steve Rogers, Bucky, and Col. Carter are stranded on an island in the Malay peninsula when their plane goes down. The pilot, Kurt Mueller, faked the crash in order to get secret documents Carter carried. As Kuoli, King of the Islands, Mueller commanded a small army of Malay warriors.  
Captain America Comics
#7 (October 1941): "Captain America and the Red Skull"

The Red Skull
The Skull returns, whistling Chopin's Funeral March as a prelude to his murders. That's the big gimmick for the story. Nicely eerie, perhaps, for radio or film, but not especially effective on the printed page.

By the way, the cover seems to have no relation to any of the stories this issue, so I'm putting it with the first story. Expect the same for future issues.
Captain America Comics #7 (October 1941): "Death Loads the Bases"

The Black Toad
The Black Toad was Chuck McArthur, manager of the Badgers baseball team.  Using blowgun darts, he tried to make it appear as if the team was jinxed, so that he could buy it from its current owner at a bargain price.

The lettering of the story shows that "Toad" was made to squeeze into a space meant for a shorter word -- maybe "Bat"? He looks more like a bat than a toad, and a "bat" would be sort of appropriate for a baseball story. So "Black Bat" -- a name which might have reminded an editor of the lawsuits over the resemblance of Batman to the pulp character "The Black Bat", and thus led to a last-minute change?

The Black Toad reappeared in a dream Cap had in issue #18, one of his few villains (besides the Red Skull and Hitler) ever to appear more than once in the 1940s.
Captain America Comics #7 (October 1941): "Horror Plays the Scales"

The Fiddler
The Fiddler was a Nazi assassin who used his violin to kill. First, he had an assistant, acting as a servant, put a bomb-laden radio in his victims' homes, which The Fiddler would detonate with certain notes he'd play during a public concert broadcast on the radio. He also could play frequencies that the human system could not stand, but he accidentally killed himself in one attempt, not knowing Cap and Bucky had stopped their ears. 
Captain America Comics #8 (November 1941): "The Strange Mystery of the Ruby of the Nile and Its Heritage of Horror"

Pharaoh Ra the Avenger
When Henry Sanders sold a supposedly cursed ruby from an Egyptian tomb, the ruby's new owners began dying at the hands of a seeming spirit of Egyptian vengeance. Cap exposed the fake Pharaoh as Sanders, who couldn't bear to see his treasure in the hands of others. 
Captain America Comics #8 (November 1941): "Murder Stalks the Maneuvers"

Pierre Dumort
Pierre Dumort posed as a Major from the Free French forces and led the soldiers of Camp Lehigh into a war game using live ammo. Cap exposed the deception and brought Dumort to justice. 
Captain America Comics #8 (November 1941): "Case of the Black Witch"

The Black Witch
The Black Witch tried to keep heiress Karin Lee from her inheritance, Hagmoor Castle (near Camp Lehigh!), by making it appear haunted. The Witch was revealed to be Feritt, the lawyer for the estate, who knew there was oil under the castle grounds. 

Captain America Comics #9 (December 1941): "Captain America and the White Death"

The White Death
This was another "kill the heirs" plot, but this time lawyer Matthew Clinton conspired with one of them, knife-throwing son-in-law Manuel Perez, who masqueraded as the White Death, to kill the others and then share the estate.

For some reason, the White Death was deemed memorable enough to appear in an album issue of Captain America in the 1960s. That same story also recalled the Ringmaster, the Unholy Legion, and the Black Toad (though as "Toadman").
Captain America Comics #9 (December 1941): "Captain America and the Man Who Could Not Die--"

Nick Pinto
Nick Pinto was sent to the electric chair but then was arrested committing crimes days later. He was sent to the chair again, after which Cap discovered a conspiracy with a prison doctor to fake Nick's death each time. (My micro is taken from the splash page image of Nick in the hardcover reprint; in the body of the story, as in the entire original printing, he appeared as a normal human.) 

This story was probably inspired by Lon Chaney Jr.'s Man Made Monster (Universal, 1941), but there have been other "Man Who Wouldn't Die" stories which could have influenced this, too.

Captain America Comics
#9 (December 1941): "The Case of the Black Talon"

The Black Talon
The Black Talon was artist Pascal Horta, whose painting hand was crushed in a car accident. A surgeon transplanted the hand of Strangler Burns, a Black murderer who wanted to atone by donating his body to science, onto the artist. The artist then claimed "the corpuscles of the dead killer's hand invaded my blood-stream slowly seizing control of my brain", forcing him first to paint, and then to create, scenes of death.

Inspired by the film The Hands of Orlac, or more likely its later remake with Peter Lorre, Mad Love (MGM, 1935), neither of which used the race angle. Dunno who's to blame for that one. 

All-Winners Comics
#3 (Winter 1941): "The Canvas of Doom"

The Artist
The Artist paints portraits of people killing themselves, using paint laced with an hypnotic drug, so that the viewer is forced to act on the image.
This is one of the first Cap stories not drawn by the Simon/Kirby team. Al Avison, inker on some earlier stories, apes the Simon/Kirby style in layout, if not the details of the art. Story is by "S.T. Anley", i.e., Stan Lee.

Hmm.  Two "fiendish artist" stories in a row -- three, if you count the Black Talon's return below. I wonder if this had anything to do with Timely discovering that Simon and Kirby had been moonlighting at DC...

Young Allies Comics
#2 (Winter 1941): "Fate Spins an Evil Web"

Black Talon Baron Boche The Fish-Men
Nazi agent Baron Boche offers the Black Talon control over America if he'll aid the Nazi cause. Talon learns Bucky's Young Allies team is helping a young woman find her explorer father, and that the father has discovered an unknown island, recently risen from the sea bed and inhabited by fish-men "natives".

The Black Talon is rather colorless here, compared to his original appearance. Yes, he still has the grafted hand, but he's played as a gang leader rather than a homicidal artist. (Perhaps the corpuscles were better assimilated?) The Talon also later turned up in a dream in #18, making him Cap's only three-timer from the '40s. 
Captain America Comics #10 (January 1942): "Spy Ambush"

Countess Mara
Countess Mara led a team of spies to steal a new rapid-fire grenade gun.

This may be the adventure Bucky later refers to, when riding a motorcycle reminds him of it, as involving the "Satan in Satin", as Cap and Bucky ride a motorcycle here and in no intervening adventures I can find.
Captain America Comics
#10 (January 1942): "Hotel of Horror"

The Netman, a fifth columnist, learned Cap was to be honored by an American city (Gotham City!) and, posing as Charley Boswell, the Mayor's secretary, led Cap into a hotel in that city filled with traps and killers. 
Captain America Comics #10 (January 1942): "The Phantom Hound of Cardiff Moor"

The Hound
The Hound was supposedly an ancient spectre, cursing those who lived in Cardiff Manor after the original owners were forced out. He was really Mr. Murdock, the last of the original owners, who, in conjunction with a phosphorus- painted mastiff, sought to reclaim the manor from recent buyers. 

Yeah, yeah, The Hound of the Baskervilles. (20th Century- Fox, 1939, for a film version to serve as inspiration.) Again, "Cardiff Moor" was supposed to be somewhere near Camp Lehigh. This is the last published Simon/Kirby Cap story.

Captain America Comics #11 (February 1942): "The Case of the Squad of Mystery"

The Second Squad Herr Grotz
The Second Squad was performing rather well in the war games. You might say they operated with German precision. Cap found they'd been replaced by Herr Grotz's spies.
Captain America Comics
#11 (February 1942): "The Feud Murders"

George Brinner Uncle Forrest Coger Colonel Rand
Two privates accused each other of stirring up an old family feud. One was killed, and the other fled to his mountaineer family to warn them. Cap, following, found a land speculator behind the revived feud.

Obviously, this was based on the Hatfield-McCoy feud of the late 19th century.
Captain America Comics #11 (February 1942): "The Symphony of Terror"

Mephisto Inspector Gribbon Detective Finnegan
An opera company manager and a lead singer are murdered in rapid succession. Suspicion falls on another of the singers, but the man in the Mephisto costume turns out to be a jilted lover of the female lead. A pair of bumbling detectives appear for comic relief.

Another Phantom of the Opera- inspired story.
Captain America Comics
#12 (March 1942): "The Terrible Menace of the Pygmies of Terror"

Doctor Crime The Pygmies of Terror
The mysterious Dr. Crime stole and refined the shrinking solution of the head-hunters of the Amazon. He sent shrunken gangsters into homes to steal for him.

Dr. Crime is one of the few '40s Cap villains who returns in another story. Also, this is the first Cap story which is 20 pages long, compared to the 10-12 page stories of previous issues
Captain America Comics #12 (March 1942): "The Case of Rozzo the Rebel"

Rozzo the Rebel
President Alvaro, of the South American nation of Oroco, visited America. Rozzo, an exiled revolutionary and his former colleague, attacked him, to revenge himself for imagined wrongs. Somehow, Rozzo had built a hidden underwater citadel, where Alvaro was made prisoner. Steve Rogers was assigned as Alvaro's bodyguard, so Cap must come to the rescue.

This is another 20-page story.

All-Winners Comics
#4 (Spring 1942): "The Sorcerer's Sinister Secret"

The Sorcerer
Mysto the Magician was really the Sorcerer, a Japanese spy. During a show near an army base in the Pacific, he caused a colonel to disappear, so that he could torture him into revealing base defenses. Cap proved his supposed magic feats were actually stage illusions.

Captain America Comics
#13 (April 1942): "The League of the Unicorn"

King Unicorn Zong The League of the Unicorn
For ages, members of The League of the Unicorn have been the master criminals of Asia.  They wear helmets with steel horns, used to gore their foes. Now they've come to America, to disrupt friendship between China and America, by killing the visiting Prince Tsaihoon. Cap exposes King Unicorn Zong as Hargraves, a railroad tycoon who saw a chance to make a big profit in Asia and revived the moribund League to do so.

This is the first post-Pearl Harbor cover.  Expect more of this.
Captain America Comics #13 (April 1942): "The Lighthouse of Horror"

The Looter
The gang of the mysterious Looter is behind the sabotage at Last Chance Lighthouse.  But who is the Looter? Is he Lems, the lighthouse keeper who hates strangers?  Or is he the suave Mr. Philips, whose shipboard romance with Betty Ross was interrupted when their ship crashed at Last Chance Lighthouse?

If you think the Looter looks like an evil Popeye, so do I. Was it intentional? Who can tell at this distance...

Captain America Comics #14 (May 1942): "The Horde of the Vulture"

The Vulture (I) Little Moose
Steve Rogers's supply convoy, taking materiel to Fort Mojave in the American southwest, is attacked by Native American renegades, led by The Vulture. Though suspicion falls on his friend, Little Moose, Cap suspects a Japanese plot and unmasks the Vulture as Hugh Bradley, a local trader.

The story shows signs of a rushed last-minute editing, changing what was originally "Black Hawk" into "Vulture" mostly. Certainly the character looks more like a vulture than a hawk, but there could have been a few art changes, too.
Captain America Comics #14 (May 1942): "The Petals of Doom"
The Yellow Claw (I)
No relation to Atlas's Fu Manchu imitation of the 1950s, this Yellow Claw is a European who sends poisoned flowers to military officials. He does have a pair of claw-like yellow hands, but no explanation for them is given.

Young Allies Comics #3 (Spring 1942): "The Coming of the Khan"
The Khan
The Khan has been promised the rule of America, if he can successfully pull off an invasion of America. The Young Allies learn of this and follow him to Alaska, where they help the army thwart the invasion.

Captain America Comics #15 (June 1942): "The Tunnel of Terror"

Fritz Krone Moeller The Tunnel Creatures
Fifth columnists under Herr Moeller's command attempt to spread fear and despair in America. When Cap stops their usual efforts, Moeller's superior, Fritz Krone, has disguised agents erupt from a new tunnel under construction, pretending to be some sort of subterranean people disturbed by the tunnel. Actually, the tunnel will intercept Krone's secret base if it is not stopped.

Fritz Krone was referenced in the Avengers 1959 mini-series, along with a number of other Nazi villains throughout Timely/Marvel comics history, including some of the Hollow Men (though not the Lord of Death himself).
Captain America Comics #15 (June 1942): "The Invasion from Mars"

Gool,  Martian Warlord
Fake Martian
10-foot-tall Martians are sighted around Camp Lehigh, and nearby Gotham City (again!) is threatened. Cap reveals the Martians to be disguised Nazis, out to break American morale, but good old Americans fight Martians as easily as they do Nazis.

Hmm.  Two stories about Nazi attempts to spread fear through hoaxes, in the same comic (and by the same writer, Otto Binder).  I wonder why the editor wasn't paying attention...

All-Winners Comics #5 (Summer 1942): "The Vampire Strikes!"

Dr. Togu, the
The Vampire
Dr. Togu was "the world's greatest master of occult medicine", who distilled the secret of vampirism into a formula, which he drank.  As The Vampire, he preyed on American Army officers, until Cap knocked him into sunlight, whereupon he reverted to human form and fell to his death. 
Captain America Comics #16 (July 1942): "The Horror of the Seas"

The Hooded Horror The Sea Monsters King of the People of Lai-Son
Captain America goes to Innsmouth!

Betty Ross is assigned to investigate disappearances near Valley Port. She is captured by the Hooded Horror, leader of the cultists of the goddess Lai-Son, and taken to a temple beneath Satan's Reef to be sacrificed. Cap has followed her and learns the Hooded Horror is a Nazi agent who wants Valley Port for a base. But the town was long ago taken over by the people of Lai-Son and their sea monsters, so the Horror has been impersonating their King. Cap frees the King, gets the story of the town, and blows up everything.

This is an unusual story, in several ways. First, the monsters are definitely the menace, but as soon as Nazis are shown as involved, they become almost sympathetic. Next, it's H. P. Lovecraft's "The Shadow over Innsmouth" all over again: the harbor town where outsiders are unwelcome, a sinister bus ride, a cult, fish-men, a lair under a reef. Finally, even acknowledging the source, it was still, in the re-telling, a pretty creepy tale... until the explanation of how the cult came to America: Vikings land on the island of Lai-Son (which appears to be in the Pacific) and intermarry with the cultists to steal their gold, then leave okay so far, if you accept either Vikings on the West Coast or Polynesian-type islands in the Atlantic. After centuries of hunting, because Lai-Son demands they be with their mates, the cultists find the descendants of the Vikings in Valley Port, USA... and kill the people they've been searching for all these years. Then, instead of returning to their sunny island, they stay and build a new home under Satan's Reef. (The Marvel Masterworks reprint lists Manly Wade Wellman, also a Weird Tales author, as the writer.)

Captain America Comics #16 (July 1942): "Red Skull's Deadly Revenge!"

Archer Red Skull Brute Benson Duke Shores Igor
After breaking jail, the Red Skull masters archery, then gathers a new gang around himself. They're bait to lure Cap, because the Skull is certain his arrows can pierce even Cap's shield. Bucky is hospitalized and Cap made a prisoner and unmasked! Dressed as Cap (with giant red teeth showing under the cowl), the Skull steals defense plans, ruining Cap's reputation.  But a healed Bucky tracks Cap down, and, after an arrows vs. shield showdown on the wings of a flying airplane, the Skull falls to his seeming death. Cap leaves the plans with the body, confident this will prove the Skull stole them....

By the way, note the Japanese flag the Skull wore on his chest instead of his swastika at the beginning of this story.  No reason given for it; it was just there for a while, and then the swastika was back.

Young Allies Comics #4 (Summer 1942): "The Most Amazing Story of All Time"

Farmer Red Skull
Showing amazing continuity between two titles, this story says the Red Skull had a hidden parachute, so he floated safely down, changed clothes with a farmer he ambushed, and escaped.  I liked the way he looked as a farmer, even though it only lasted a couple of panels.

The rest of the story involves the Skull's plot to kill everyone in Washington, D.C., with poison gas released by treated papers.  Knuckles is thought dead for a while, and Bucky and Toro have a boxing match. The Skull falls off a cliff at the end, and everyone stands around the body, so it looks like he couldn't possibly have escaped death this time. Ahem.

Captain America Comics #17 (August 1942): "The Monster from the Morgue"

Killer Kole Dr. Jason Weirdler
That popular stand-by, a gangster's brain in a gorilla's body.

Cautionary note to all scientists: do not announce your scientific breakthroughs ahead of time. Dr. Thomas Austin, having successfuly revived a human corpse, plans to reanimate a gorilla. (Why the first resurrection wasn't enough to satisfy anyone isn't explained.) Rival Dr. Weirdler decides to embarass him by substituing the jarred (and presumably pickled) brain of Killer Kole for that of the gorilla. He apparently needn't have bothered, because the experiment is a failure, and the gorilla is thoughtfully given a burial by "jeering medical students" under a stone reading "Doctor Austin's Mistake". But a lightning bolt, bypassing nearby trees and striking the grave, completes the reanimation, and Killer Kole finds he can't help heading for the circus to pick up his new mob -- of apes. Kole starts killing the judges who sentenced him to death, and Weirdler grows a conscience and confesses all. Cap and Kole fight atop a fire ladder, and Kole falls to his re-death.

Man, Frankenstein and King Kong and any number of "Man Who Wouldn't Die" revenge movies, all rolled into one! That's Entertainment!

While he doesn't look much like a gorilla, this is a pretty faithful rendition of Killer Kole as he appeared in the comic.
Captain America Comics #17 (August 1942): "Sub-Earthmen's Revenge!"

The Spook Queen Medusa The Sub-Earthmen
When Nazi saboteurs attack Camp Lehigh, their explosions cause turmoil in The World Below.  Good Queen Medusa leads a troop of her Sub-Earthmen, riding giant worms, to the surface to investigate, but a final shock seals the shaft behind them. Somehow, the "top-men" (us) misunderstand the intentions of cavemen mounted on giant worms, and Cap has to intervene to prevent a mutual massacre. But a Krimson Klansman calling himself The Spook tells Medusa how she can have revenge on the top-men. Cap has to stop the fatal misunderstandings which ensue, and The Spook is revealed to be one of the saboteurs who caused the whole thing. Pow, right in the kisser! (And, yes, the  Sub-Earthmen are still stranded at the end of the story.)
Captain America Comics #17 (August 1942): "Machine of Doom!"

Prof. Clement Mott Le Bull
Eminent scientist Mott thinks the war-torn world has gone mad, so he goes mad, too, and plans to destroy the world with his Cosmic Depressor (which apparently uses Cosmic rays to Depress the motion of atoms, causing matter to drift apart). Vichy collaborationist Le Bull wants North America to drift apart, but not necessarily anywhere else. Cap wants to stop them both.  He does.

Fort Lehigh is in Florida today.
Captain America Comics #18 (September 1942): "Bowling Alley of Death"

A new bowling alley in town attracts a lot of Camp Lehigh business, but too many accidents, some fatal, happen there to the soldiers. Owner Gigo is actually a Nazi saboteur. There's more to the story, about Gigo's background in a Russian secret society, but it's all filler.
Captain America Comics #18 (September 1942): "The Tomb of Horror"
Prof. Wembley
Prof. Harold Wembley "The Black Talon" "The Black Toad"
Steve Rogers, assigned to help an archaeologist in Egypt, dreams of two former foes plotting in the tomb.

That's all.  It's a dream. Next!

Captain America Comics #18 (September 1942): "The Mikado's Super Shell"
Paw, "mad Japanese genius," has developed a massive gun which can fire a shell across the Pacific. Cap invades Japan to destroy it.

All-Winners Comics #6 (Fall 1942): "The Mock Mikado Strikes!"

The Mock Mikado
Unknown to the current Emperor of Japan, a fraternal twin brother was born along with him. In order to keep the peace in the royal family, the brother was sent to Mexico and secretly raised by a trusted agent. Now, this "Mock Mikado" is ready to raise an army of his own and invade America. And guess who's sent to stop him?

Young Allies Comics #5 (Fall 1942): "Horror In Hollywood"

The Owl
The Owl, master of propaganda, is sent to Hollywood to stop production of an anti-Nazi film.

It's something of a mystery why this character is called "The Owl", other than his having a vaguely owlish appearance, until you realize he's a master of disguise and there are captions saying "Who? Who? Who is The Owl?"

Hey! Whitewash is doing something useful! On most other covers, he, Jeff, and Tubby are all captives, leaving the heavy lifting to Bucky and Toro, and maybe Knuckles with a machine gun.

Captain America Comics #19 (October 1942): "The Crocodile Strikes"
The Crocodile
A family in a decaying bayou manse is menaced by a giant crocodile. Cap soon learns The Crocodile is actually a human in disguise but who? One of the family? One of their servants? The visiting professor?
Captain America Comics #19 (October 1942): "On to Berlin"
Herr Demon
Herr Demon
General Spenser is kidnapped and taken to Germany. Steve Rogers fails to volunteer for a rescue mission, and Bucky thinks Steve's a coward, until he realizes Steve held back so that he could accompany the mission as Captain America. Meanwhile, Hitler calls for his chief torturer, Herr Demon, to get needed info from the general...

Captain America Comics #20 (November 1942): "The Spawn of the Witch Queen"
Spawn of the Witch Queen

Spawn of the Witch Queen Barbec
A British expedition finds the mummy of a child in an Egyptian tomb.  Following the chanting of a spell, the restored mummy becomes a human child, which the expedition leader adopts.  Years later, Steve Rogers's unit, on assignment in Egypt, helps re-discover the tomb and the remains of the earlier expedition.  The child has grown into a man, the Spawn of the Witch Queen, and is trying to resurrect his mummified mommy.  Cap exposes his British liaison as the one behind the Spawn's mask.

Apparently this steals from Sax Rohmer's novel Brood of the Witch-Queen (1918).
Captain America Comics #20 (November 1942): "The Fiend That Was the Fakir"
The Fakir
The Fakir
The Japanese are arming hill tribes in India to oppose the British forces there.  The Fakir leads those tribes.
Captain America Comics #20 (November 1942): "The Case of the Clammy Things"
Dr. Destiny
The Clammy Things
Doctor Destiny The Things
Horrible, distorted "Things" emerge from the London Underground (subway) system and kidnap the Lord Mayor and others. Cap and Bucky follow and find the base of Doctor Destiny, who thinks his destiny is to rule London. The Things are mutated humans.

Dr. D. looks like an anime character, doesn't he? That's how he appeared in the story.

Captain America Comics #21 (December 1942): "The Creeper and the Three Rubies of Doom"
The Creeper
The Creeper
To stop an important treaty between the Allies and the country of Alslavia from being signed, a Nazi agent called The Creeper has stolen the rubies from King Dane's signet ring. Cap must recover them or risk insulting the king.

A rather (ahem!) elaborate story around a simple (-minded) premise. All the Creeper is missing is a farmer's daughter and a railroad track...
Captain America Comics #21 (December 1942): "Satan and the Sorcerer's Secret"

Balthar the Sorcerer Satan
Would-be sorcerer Mr. Balthar makes a pact with the devil and gains death-dealing eyes. After beating him, Cap has to wrestle with the Devil himself. No, really!

The marvunapp.com page on Balthar contains speculation as to which modern Marvel demon might have been portraying this "Satan". A faceless, winged Satan also empowered Johnny Blaze, the 1970s Ghost Rider. The continuity cops on marvunapp.com have declared that particular demon was ... actually Satan, the Judeo- Christian "adversary"! However, another faceless, winged "Satan", the father of Daimon Hellstrom and Satana, has also appeared in the comics and was declared to be a demon named Marduk Kurios. So which "Satan" was this one? Follow the various links on the Balthar page above, if you're interested.

USA Comics
#6 (December 1942): "The Ghost's Gaze of Death"
War plants are terrorized by a ghostly figure, the fright causing accidents in the plants, and those who come close enough die on the spot.  Prof. Anton Harvey believes it's the ancient Greek Medusa (except this Medusa is obviously male). Cap believes it's a trick. Medusa is really Harvey, who is also a Nazi agent, and his look of death is a concealed dart gun.

USA Comics had premiered in August 1941 as an anthology title headlining The Defender, a Cap copy (Marine Don Stevens and his sidekick Rusty). It also had Jack Frost and Rockman, sort of inverse Human Torch and Sub-Mariner analogues, and another Cap copy, Mr. (later Major) Liberty. I'm surprised it took Timely this long to give Cap his third venue.

All-Winners Comics #7 (Winter 1942): "Return of Doctor Crime"

Doctor Crime Von Eisner
Doctor Crime, who has been allowed to wear his costume in prison, tells Nazi Von Eisner where to find the shrinking formula in Dr. Crime's old house. Amazingly, Von Eisner doesn't steal the formula but gives it to Dr. C, who escapes. Dr. C then kidnaps a general. During the course of the story, both Bucky and Dr. C are shrunken and have a fight, after which a hawk grabs tiny Dr. C for dinner.

Young Allies Comics #6 (Winter 1942): "School for Sabotage"
Prof. Kraut
Prof. Kraut
The boys travel to Europe, claiming to be American sons of "loyal Germans" (even Whitewash) on their way to learn sabotage in Berlin. Prof. Kraut, the head of the school, welcomes them, but they secretly sabotage the lessons. Hitler comes to review the school, and they hand him a beating and blow up the school, before returning to America.
Young Allies Comics #6 (Winter 1942): "The Comet of Doom"
Togo, chief Japanese spy in America, built a crystalline magnet which is attracting a huge comet to the center of America and causing panic. The Young Allies divide into two teams (one to a ghost town in Death Valley, the other to a New York City subway tunnel) to collect two jewels which can destroy the magnet.

Captain America Comics #22 (January 1943): "The Vault of the Doomed"

Doctor Eternity Hunchbacked Servant
Congressman Barlow and his "anti- Nazi committee" are making things too hot for Mr. Schultz and the local Washington Nazis, so  Barlow is invited to meet with "Dr. Eternity, Spiritual Guide" -- i.e., medium. The ghost of Barlow's brother predicts Barlow's death.  Cap and Bucky are passing by and find a vault under the house, where Eternity and his hunchbacked servant seal them in. They are rescued by another client of Dr. E's and unmask the Doctor to reveal "one of Hitler's star boys!"

It may be that Dr. E was originally intended to be Mr. Schultz under the mask.  There isn't much resemblance, but it seems odd there'd be an unmasking scene in the story without someone under the mask we'd recognize.
Captain America Comics #22 (January 1943): "Captain America Battles the Reaper! (The Man the Law Couldn't Touch!)"

The Reaper
The Reaper is a demogogue who applies Hitler's "Big Lie" principle to the subversion of the U.S. government, telling Americans "right is wrong, and wrong is right". Since he never openly espouses revolt, he can't be arrested.
Captain America Comics #22 (January 1943): "The Cobra Ring of Death"
The Ring
The Ring Toto
Both Senator Ralph and General Lang have died suddenly. Cap thinks the odd cobra ring both men wore had something to do with it.  Bucky shows the ring in local curio shops and finds a Bund leader called The Ring, who captures him. Cap fights The Ring's giant servant, Toto, to learn Bucky's location, and The Ring is accidentally killed by one of his own cobra rings: when the hand is clenched into a fist, the head of the cobra injects strychnine into the wearer.

Captain America Comics #23 (February 1943): "The Mystery of the One Hundred Corpses"
Cap and Bucky find almost a hundred corpses in a flooded quarry, but no one in nearby towns seems to be missing.  Dr. Izan (even Bucky knows to spell it backwards) is replacing dying men with Nazi agents, "curing" them, and dumping the originals' bodies in the quarry.
Captain America Comics #23 (February 1943): "The Deadly Snapper"

The Turtle-Man Killer Bane
The Turtle-Man has, for a year, been helping convicts escape from Louisiana chain-gangs into nearby Swamp Sinister.  Now, he's ready to strike, at a Mardi Gras float using real jewels.

Both the previous issue's "comic attractions" and the story's title refer to this character as The Snapper, but for some reason he's become the much less awesome sounding "Turtle-Man" in the body of the story.
Captain America Comics #23 (February 1943): "The Idol of Doom"

Prince Ba'rahm Shao
Steve and Bucky see a woman and a Hindu disappear in a ring of fire in the middle of a lake.  Later, the woman's body is found. It's all part of a plot to gain wealthy women's estates. The titular Idol of Doom is merely the doorway to a base beneath the lake from which the ring of fire is controlled.

USA Comics
#7 (February 1943): "Case of the Flying Submarine"
Fritz the Fire Eater
The Eraser
Fritz the Fire Eater
Circus "rubber man" turned German spy, the Eraser is out to steal the sole model of a flying submarine. He doesn't do anything particularly circus-y in this story -- no being double- jointed, no tricky escapes or break-ins. The best he can do, after Cap's taken back the model and knocked the Eraser into the sea, is to vow to Cap that, since rubber floats, he'll be back. But he wasn't.

Similarly, Fritz doesn't eat any fire. He yells and shows a forked tongue shaped like a flame, but that's it.

Kid Komics #1 (February 1943): untitled haunted house story

Having extended "Captain America comics" to include Bucky and the Young Allies, I now have to include this story, in which neither Cap nor Bucky appear, but Knuckles and Whitewash (and Jeff in a cameo) investigate a haunted house. No new characters appear in this story, though.

Captain America Comics #24 (March 1943): "The Vampire Strikes!"

Count Varnis Butler
Assigned to put a searchlight atop Vampire's Mountain, Steve and Bucky find the home of Count Varnis, and darned if the Count isn't acting oddly...  
Captain America Comics #24 (March 1943): "Meet the Eel of Horror Harbor"
The Eel
The Eel
Investigating the mysterious sinkings of newly completed ships, Cap and Bucky find men in the employ of The Eel are treating the ships with something to attract the Eel's giant octopus, which drags the ships under. The Eel also has a pit of giant electric eels, which Cap uses to finish off both the octopus and the Eel himself.

All-Winners Comics #8 (Spring 1943): untitled

Prince Kuhomai
General MacArthur is coming to visit Steve Rogers's unit, currently stationed in New Guinea. Prince Kuhomai, a Japanese officer whose father committed suicide after losing to MacArthur at Bataan, plans to avenge his father's death by blowing up the camp during the visit. Cap and Bucky are imprisoned with the explosives, get free and sabotage them, then use them to cause Kuhomai to blow himself up.

Captain America Comics #25 (April 1943): "The Princess of the Atom"
Vacationing with friends, Steve Rogers learns Dianne Ferrule is actually a princess from a sub-atomic world, sent to Earth to escape the evil Togaro. Using shrinking drugs, they go to the sub-atomic world of Mita to fight Togaro, who, in the meantime, has been sending his own men to Earth as giants, looking for the princess.

Pulp author Ray Cummings adapted his story, "The Girl in the Golden Atom", for this two-part Cap adventure.

Looks like this month's cover was intended for next month's Russia story.
Captain America Comics #25 (April 1943): "The Murdering Mummy and the Laughing Sphinx"

Karr the Mummy Modebl
A mummy has been murdering high government officials. Cap and Bucky find it and learn it is preparing the way for the return of the demon Modebl. They also manage to grab a sphinx charm from its neck. Egyptologist Prof. Jameson is eager to examine the charm, but it is Cap who learns the charm contains a liquid which enables him to face Modebl... or so it seems, since the liquid is an opium solution, causing hallucinations. Jameson is really the Mummy, but it's not his fault: he drank some of this liquid and became a kind of lycanthrope, unaware of his changing each night into the Mummy.

Young Allies Comics #7 (April 1943): "Meet the Ambassador of Death"

The Ambassador of Terror
When the so-called Ambassador of Terror slays six men appointed good-will ambassadors to a South American country, the boys convince Pres. Roosevelt to appoint them instead. But the Ambassador of Terror follows them and attempts to disrupt their mission.
Young Allies Comics #7 (April 1943): "The Scratch of Death"

The Serpent Emperor Hirohito Ching Wing Ling Toy
With sacs of snake venom under his fingernails, the Serpent lives up to his name by scratching the faces of his victims. Ling Toy, fiancee of a downed Chinese fighter pilot, is marked to be such a victim, as Ching Wing has alerted her to a discovery he made: an invasion tunnel connecting Japan to America. The Young Allies help Ling Toy, give a temporarily blinded Emperor Hirohito a paddling, and blow up the tunnel, causing the Serpent to kill himself in disgrace.

Lots of ideas with little connecting thread. Invasion tunnels prove to be a popular plot in future stories.

Captain America Comics
#26 (May 1943): "The Princess of the Atom, Part II"
Dianne Ferrule
Dianne Ferrule
In Mita, Dianne is returned to her people, but Togaro has accompanied them in miniature and rejoins his troops.  They enlarge their own ship so that it outweighs Mita and forces it out of orbit. Cap helps rescue the tiny Mitans through Dianne's enlarged ship, takes them to a new planet, then pursues Togaro, who now wants to conquer Earth.  The story ends with gigantic Cap and Togaro wrestling, until Togaro hits his head on a mountain, dies, and shrinks to his own sub-atomic size.

Not only was "Princess of the Atom" a two-parter, they were two long parts, 25 pages each.
Captain America Comics #26 (May 1943): " Captain America and the Russian Hell-Hole"

Nazi commander
Col. Nemeroff
Steve and Bucky, on a convoy going to Russia, are separated from the convoy when they stop a Nazi plane from strifing their ship.  In the captured plane, they make their way to Russia, after which they take a message from a dying Russian spy, escape a Nazi air base hidden inside a glacier, fight wolves, and visit a Lapp village, before finally thwarting a planned invasion of Murmansk, escaping from chains in a sinking ship, and being feasted as heroes in the Kremlin.

There seems to be one of these "stop the invasion" stories about every third issue on average, and I usually don't like them. But this one had more coherence than most, with the Russian locale set pieces appearing naturally.

USA Comics
#8 (May 1943): "Invasion of the Killer Beasts"

Oberst Von Steibel para-trooper with poisonous dogs
The story opens promisingly with a captured Nazi para-trooper telling how the accursed Captain America defeated their Nazi might, but it heads downhill quickly. Oberst Von Steibel hand-picks 50 men but fails to make any use of their particular skills.  He gives them an animal weapon dogs with poisonous fangs  and immediately, with no time to accustom the dogs to the men, ships them off to America on a cramped sub, ensuring the travel time could not be used for training, either. A mere 50 men were supposed to cripple the entire US Army, and even then, they use their deadly new canine weapon almost as an afterthought. They then try to wipe out Camp Lehigh with a single truck with explosives sent to a dam, admittedly, but this was apparently something they had planned in advance, and it had a single point of failure. Naturally, it failed. Maybe the Oberst was really a double-agent, setting up 50 of the best Nazi soldiers for sacrifice. Or maybe the story was thrown together with no sense of a real plot. You decide.
Captain America Comics #27 (June 1943): "North of the Border"

Baron Von Hartmann
Quebec City is the star of this tale, in which Baron Von Hartmann's capture of a Canadian general and his war plans is merely the MacGuffin.

Captain America Comics #27 (June 1943): "Blitzkrieg to Berlin"

Herr Wolf Kapitan Huntzel Pierre Leroux
Cap and Bucky stumble across a deserted house, gimmicked with traps, which is the base for Herr Wolf's spy ring. The spies capture them and return with them to Berlin aboard Kapitan Huntzel's u-boat. Hitler gloats, but they escape, after learning about the construction of a giant u-boat which will carry soldiers to invade America.  With the help of Pierre Leroux, a resistance fighter, they destroy the sub.

This is the kind of sloppy "stop the invasion" story I don't like, as it loses its focus (Wolf's information) halfway through and has to invent a new one (the giant u-boat).

All-Winners Comics #9 (Summer 1943): "Case of the Sinister Hun"
Baron Von Widemouth
The Baron, the sinister hun in question, is trying to blow up the locks of the Panama Canal with "aerial torpedos" actually, small drone planes with explosives.

Captain America Comics #28 (July 1943): "The Challenge of the Mad Torso"

The Torso
Letters signed by "The Torso" taunt Cap to stop the kidnapping of a famous researcher.  He does so and follows a trail to a Western mountain and a once-deserted monastery, now the home of The Torso: a Nazi scientist whose bomb-wrecked arms and legs have been replaced by mechanical ones.
Captain America Comics #28 (July 1943): "The Vultures of Violent Death"

The Birdmen of Pa-Pi-Ru-Gua
The Japanese military have convinced the inhabitants of a South Pacific island to allow a Japanese base there.  Under their guidance, warriors riding giant birds capture Cap, Bucky, and an Allied flight crew, and Cap must face a series of trials to save them all from execution.

USA Comics
#9 (July 1943): "Puppets of Death"

Varda Hans
Cap stumbles across a plot to eliminate Jameson, an Allied counter-spy.  He trails Jameson to the Black Cat night club where, during a puppet performance, Jameson collapses and is later diagnosed as having died of Dengue fever, which is so highly contagious that his body must be buried immediately, in a sealed casket, without being embalmed. Hmm... Cap learns that the puppeteer, Varda, is using his show to infect targets with a drug whose effects resemble Dengue but which instead puts them into catalepsy, from which he later revives them to enslave them and use their skills. Cap is set up as a human puppet but manages to kill Varda with an arrow to the throat!

Young Allies Comics #8 (July 1943): "North Africa Ahoy"

Kapt. Schlacht
Berber chief
Gen. Leroux
During the theft of a bomber, the Young Allies are captured and flown to North Africa. The bomber crashes, and the boys evade Berber tribesmen to reach Algiers, where they tell General Leroux, military leader of the occupied French colony, of a coming invasion by an Allied fleet. When Laroux betrays them, the boys discover the real Laroux to be a prisoner.  They free him in time for him to notify his countrymen to give the Allied liberators all cooperation.
Young Allies Comics #8 (July 1943): "The Terror of the Rising Sun!"
The Whip
The Whip, a Japanese spy, kills Dr. Carstairs and returns to Japan, but the Young Allies are on his trail. Captured by The Whip, the boys escape and bomb The Whip's base, causing him to kill himself in disgrace.

Captain America Comics #29 (August 1943): "The King of the Dinosaurs!"

Olaf the Iguanadon
Prof. Karl Schultz
This time, it's a human brain in a dinosaur's body.

Prof. Karl Schultz discovers a frozen, comatose "Iguanadon -- the King of the Dinosaurs" in Antarctica and has it shipped to an American museum. But he is a Nazi agent and former brain surgeon, and he kidnaps his loyal aide Olaf, transplants his brain into the dinosaur, and revives it. The dazed Olaf destroys a nearby munitions depot and wanders into the countryside. Cap finds him and tells him how Schultz has tricked him. Olaf kills Schultz and then himself, jumping off a cliff.
Captain America Comics #29 (August 1943): "The Case of the 'Phantom Engineer'"

The Phantom Engineer radium-sheeted "ghosts"
While awaiting a train to take him back to camp, Steve hears the legend of the Ghost Train of Wreck Canyon. A skull-faced "phantom engineer" lays claim to the railroad and the canyon, saying he'll wreck any train going through it, then runs off. To make sure a train with important military personnel gets through, Cap investigates the canyon, finds radium-sheeted Nazi "ghosts" and a movie projector with a ghostly train. The Phantom Engineer is Peter Blakeman, district manager for the railroad and Nazi saboteur.
Captain America Comics #29 (August 1943): "The Case of the Headless Monster"

The Headless Monster Jonathan
The Headless Monster terrorizes small towns in the Ramapo area. Cap investigates and finds the Monster too tough to beat, though it runs off, anyway, and disappears. He does find Jonathan Torgson, a dwarfish, huge-headed freak, an apparent captive of the Monster. But the Monster is really a mechanical shell for Torgson, who wanted revenge for being tormented as a freak and who ultimately kills himself.

Captain America Comics #30 (September 1943): "The House of the Laughing Death"
The Silent Killer
Four people have died mysteriously in Carlin Sanatorium, victims of the "Laughing Death". Cap finds plenty of dirty work in the Sanatorium.  Arthur Blaine has hired Dr. Carlin to kill an uncle so that he can inherit. Carlin had been forced to murder by his criminal brother, who is hiding in the Sanatorium.  The Laughing Death is pure oxygen, which brings euphoria, overworks the heart, and leaves no trace.
Captain America Comics #30 (September 1943): "The Curse of the 'Yellow Scourge'"
Tu-Ra-Bi-Ka the Witch Doctor has convinced the formerly neutral inhabitants of his Pacific island home to side with the Japanese. Turns out the Japanese have replaced Tu-Ra-Bi-Ka with an impostor.
Captain America Comics #30 (September 1943): "The Saboteur of Death!"
Von Broot
Cap is assigned to make sure Nazi agent Von Broot does not interfere with the Allies presence in Barabia. The story never really develops or goes anywhere.

USA Comics
#10 (September 1943): "The Cylinder of Death"
Gen. Nikki Olga
Olga, a Russian spy posing as a dancer, warns Cap that "the Cylinder of Death must be destroyed!" Cap can't prevent Japanese soldiers from smuggling the cylinder into California, but he does learn its secret: it's filled with a miniaturized army (shrunken by a ray projector stolen from the late Prof. Livingstone 6 months earlier), an army which is being enlarged as he watches.  There's an odd but exciting scene where Cap, having confined the cylinder in a room, smashes out at the growing toy army, even as some soldiers and equipment evade him. About half the army is smashed, but the rest reach full size and escape. A nearby army base helps clean up the rest, and General Nikki, mastermind of the plot, falls to his death from atop a dam.

All-Select Comics
#1 (Fall 1943): "The Case of the Mystery of the Human Bats!"
The Vulture (II) The Batmen
This Vulture is a Nazi scientist who developed a serum which not only makes men stronger but enables them to fly, though they need artificial wings to steer. He created a team of Batmen, whom he controls because the serum must be renewed every 12 hours or the taker dies. He uses them to kidnap important officials. Cap is taken to the mountaintop eyrie of the Vulture. Apparently the deadly withdrawal effects of the serum only manifest after repeated usage, because Cap and the hostages take the serum themselves to be able to fly down from the mountain, leaving the rest to die from withdrawal.

All-Winners Comics #10 (Fall 1943): "Kioto, the Mad Jap"
Kioto is put in charge of the Japanese base on a Pacific island, but his cruel methods have soured the natives, who approach Cap to free them from his rule.

There's not much "mad" about Kioto, other than his cruelty. But that includes capturing Allied soldiers, killing them, and parachuting them back behind Allied lines as a taunt, so maybe that was enough for the audience.

From a modern perspective, one learns how little the authors and artists of these stories knew about the cultures the US was fighting. This is all juvenile propaganda, to be sure, but you have to draw on something for your ideas. Maybe they'd met some German families and could use their names for villains: Schlacht, Huntzel, Von Steibel. But there are far more "Von Broots", Dickensian names to echo the characters' personalities. And when it comes to the Japanese, there's even less experience to draw on, so we get people named after cities in the news (Kioto) and with Japanese-sounding names (Sakiomo), as well as Dickensian names like "Sneeki".

Young Allies Comics #9 (Fall 1943): "The Bloody Henchman!"

Benito Mussolini
While helping repair a bomber in North Africa, the boys accidentally cause it to take off, and its full load of bombs make it impossible for them to land it again. They decide to fly it to Italy and drop the bombs on Italian ships. When they are pursued, they bail out, landing on Mussolini's palace. After a series of adventures, they return to Allied lines with proof Mussolini is stealing from his own people, which is used to rouse the Italian people to revolt.
Young Allies Comics #9 (Fall 1943): "Toward the Land of the Condemned!"
Herr Executioner
The boys invade Europe again to free a resistance fighter from the chief Nazi executioner.

Kid Komics
#3 (Fall 1943): "Caught in the Tune of Death"

Black Dirge
The Black Dirge is a master spy who uses music in his crimes: as an organ grinder, he has a monkey steal plans. He then replaces violinist De Banac to use his passport to return to Europe. The boys catch him before he reaches Berlin and return him to the Allied lines.

Captain America Comics #31 (October 1943): "The Terror of the Green Mist"
Humanoid plants are parachuted into American croplands, where they are shot by soldiers.  But puncturing them releases a green mist which turns the nearby land into slime. Cap and Bucky follow the trail to Germany, where the transformed madman called Fungi is made to turn his own laboratory into slime.

Fungi is pretty creepy. Timely is definitely in the sensationalistic "weird horror" camp, compared to more staid DC, who had a bunch of children's licensees to keep in mind (e.g., the popular Superman radio show).
Captain America Comics #31 (October 1943): "The Canal of Lurking Death"

U-boat commander
Hunting a hidden submarine base, Cap and Bucky force a U-boat commander to take them there. An underground tunnel on the Holland coast leads to the base, where fake hay barges and windmills disguise its true purpose. Cap plants explosives on the subs in the base, then returns to England to fetch RAF bombers. When they see the subs go up, they are able to pinpoint the base and finish the job with their bombs.

Other than Cap's swimming from Holland to England, there isn't much he does here a spy character couldn't have done.
Captain America Comics #31 (October 1943): "The Coughing Killer"
The Cougher
While doctors waste their time looking for a bacterial agent, spread when the Cougher coughs, the real weapon is the poison dart he fires from his blowgun cough-drops.

Captain America Comics #32 (November 1943): "The Menace of the Murderous Mole-Man"
The Mole
In London, Cap puzzles over the accuracy of Nazi bombers recently: along with their other targets, they always manage to hit a couple of air raid shelters.  He finds the underground warren of The Mole, who plants bombs under the shelters so that the deaths will be blamed on the planes.
Captain America Comics #32 (November 1943): "Ali Baba and His Forty Nazis"

Ali Baba Nubian
A modern-day Ali Baba uses the trappings of the old story to sabotage Allied efforts in Baghdad.
Captain America Comics #32 (November 1943): "The Talons of the Vulture"
The Vulture (III) Joan
This third Vulture is a Nazi officer, a prison commandant, who delights in striking at the guerrillas of the French resistance who try to stop the slave trains bound for his camp. Cap joins the guerrillas and finds they are led by a woman, Joan, whose brother, Jacques, is a prisoner in the camp. Cap is then captured and realizes Jacques is passing information about the guerrillas to The Vulture. After engineering a breakout, Cap proves his case to Joan, who shoots her traitorous brother.

Rather a nice little story, if a tad obvious to modern eyes. Cap and Joan are fond of each other, so that the Cap/Peggy Carter relationship alluded to in the 1960s seems to have been inspired by this one.

Captain America Comics #33 (December 1943): "Mother Wong"

Mother Wong Giant Servant
Mother Wong, secret gang leader whose name is whispered in dread across China, is really spying for the Allies to free her country from the Japanese occupiers. Cap and Bucky first fight, then aid, her.
Captain America Comics #33 (December 1943): "The Master of the Killer Mongoose!"

The Master
Lt. Betty Ross
Stationed in North Africa, Steve and Bucky save Betty Ross, now a WAC, from attackers. Later, she and the other WACs are kidnapped by hirelings of the Master, a Nazi spy who punishes failure by having his pet mongoose rip out one's throat. They are to be smuggled into Tunis and pumped for info about secret plans they carry, but Cap kills the mongoose and sets them free, and the WACs capture the spy ring.
Captain America Comics #33 (December 1943): "The Symbol of Doom"

The Symbol of Doom
A cloaked figure the newspapers call "the Symbol of Doom" is seen at every recent disaster affecting the army. When the Symbol tries to destroy the troop train Steve and Bucky are on, they investigate in costume. In a copper mine, they find a Japanese suicide squad whose cloaks hide the explosives they carry, and Cap gets them to destroy themselves.

All-Select Comics #2 (Winter 1943): "Saboteurs in White"

The Red Skull
Doctor Red Skull
The Red Skull's saboteurs have destroyed four factories. They break in variously, but no one ever sees them leave. That's because they're disguised as medical personnel and leave with the ambulances, having taken over a private hospital.

All-Winners Comics #11 (Winter 1943): "The Case of the Yellow Fire Monster"

Nogatami, famous Japanese chemist, impersonates Ching Toy, who is the priest of a Chinese fire god of the same name. Nogatami has expanded the worship of the fire god to include heroin addicts and sent them out to burn selected targets. When Cap appears and breaks up the temple, Nogatami raises terror in the streets himself with various fire weapons.  But when he tries to flee from Cap by climbing a bridge cable, one of his own flames melts the cable, and he falls to his death.

Young Allies Comics #10 (Winter 1943): "The Horror of the Doll-Devil"

Malapo Mr. Adam
Whitewash's father is a porter in the US House of Representatives. While there, he sees a Congressman collapse and recognizes the work of black magic. He tells his son, who tells his friends, and the Young Allies run to check with museum curator Mr. Adam as to whether such things are known to science. Adam tells them of traditions of sorcerers making dolls and enchanting victims souls into them, animating them. Indeed, one Malapo is doing exactly that; the boys run into him and discover a suddenly fiendish Mr. Adam is his master. But when Malapo threatens Whitewash, his father, who'd been following the boys, reveals he learned some spells as a child. With the spells, he breaks the power of Adam and Malapo, releasing their victims.

A surprisingly serious story. Mr. Jones is not a goggle-eyed Stepin Fetchit but a frightened man worried about his son. Mr. Adam's transformation is a bit goofy, with the wide grin I used in the micro, but otherwise he's played straight. And apparently the Young Allies operate out of Washington, DC, at least for this story.

The one truly comical moment comes from Mr. Adam's spells, which are the names of Timely staffers in pig Latin ("Anstay Eelay! Onday Icoray!")

Captain America Comics #34 (January 1944): "The Cult of the Assassins"

Kali The Dacoits
Serving in the honor guard at a diplomatic reception in India for Gen. Wavell, Steve Rogers helps the fainting Princess Ramasi, who finds him attractive. Meanwhile, Dacoits kill Wavell's secretary, mistaking him for the General. Cap suspects a plot and learns the princess is worshipped by the Dacoits as Kali, Daughter of Kali, leader of a cult of assassins. Kali, who is actually part Japanese, recognizes Cap as Steve, falls in love with him, and offers to make him co-ruler of India after she helps Japan conquer it. But he refuses and ruins her plans; she kills herself and the Dacoits die in a fire.

By the way, in real-life, the Kali-worshipping assassins were actually the Thuggee or Phansigars (different names in different parts of India). "Dacoit" merely means "bandit".
Captain America Comics #34 (January 1944): "The Stage of Death"

Rosso, the deformed dwarf, haunts the Central Opera House, killing performers.  He is a former tenor who was accused of stealing funds, then thought killed by a train accident.  But he survived and now steals beautiful things while avenging himself on his former friends.

A more direct swipe from Phantom of the Opera than most such stories, this one fails to make clear whether Rosso was guilty of the original thefts or not. Many "Phantom" stories portray the villain as either a wronged avenger or a jealous monster. No one seems to have bothered much in this case.
Captain America Comics #34 (January 1944): "Invasion Mission!"

Gestapo chief
The Allies plan an invasion on the Balkan coast. Cap and Bucky are sent in ahead to clear the way. They save a beautiful Italian spy and sabotage Nazi gun emplacements, allowing the invasion fleet to land.

Captain America Comics #35 (February 1944): "The Gargoyle Strikes"

Count  Georges Tarragh The Gargoyle
Why does the charming and accomplished Count Tarragh wear a golden mask?  No one knows that it covers a beast-like face. As The Gargoyle, he chooses to aid Hitler's cause (until he can prove his superiority over the Nazis, as well). Cap stops him from stealing plans for an unnamed "war invention" from a scientist in the Florida Everglades.

Once captured, The Gargoyle swore to return, but he never did.
Captain America Comics #35 (February 1944): "The Steel Mask"

The Man in the Steel Mask The Bronze Idol
An old Mayan temple in the American southwest holds an ancient secret. The Man in the Steel Mask claims to be a centuries-old Mayan priest, and he uses the robotic bronze idol of the temple to stir up nearby Mexicans against the U.S., but he's really a Nazi agent.

Actually, the Mayans lived hundreds of miles further south. It was the Aztecs (and their ancestors, none of whom were Mayan) who lived in the area. I suppose this could have been an outpost.
Captain America Comics #35 (February 1944): "The Case of the Horror Money"

Peter Stromboli L. M. Waters
Is it really counterfeit money if it's printed with government plates on government paper? Yes, if the printer is greedy Peter Stromboli rather than the U.S. Mint. He works for the Nazis and impersonates the Waters department stores owner to spread the cash, to undermine the U.S. economy. One thing's for sure: it's not "horror money".

Captain America Comics #36 (March 1944): "The Blood of Dr. Necrosis"

Dr. Necrosis
Australian forces in the South Pacific suffer a mysterious increase of gangrene cases among their wounded. Cap traces the problem to the blood supply, which is being used by the infected Dr. Necrosis in an attempt to cure his own gangrenous condition.

The victims are infected with a disease the story calls "white gangrene" or "leucopepesis" (or maybe "leucodedesis"; my copy is a poor scan). I suspect that's an error for "leucosepsis", which is still a nonsense term. In reality, white gangrene is a condition, rather than a disease, and its medical term is "leukonecrosis" ("white cell-death"). Gangrene is a type of cell-death caused by insufficient blood circulation to a body part. In white gangrene, the cells of the flesh turn white as they die; in normal gangrene the cells turn black as if mummified. There is a type called "wet gangrene" in which poor circulation allows other types of bacterial infection to occur; this is the type of gangrene you hear about leading to immediate amputation of the infected part. None of this matches the disease shown in the story. I guess we can't expect comic-book medicine to be very different from other comic-book sciences.

One can't help one's name, but would you trust a doctor named "Necrosis"?
Captain America Comics #36 (March 1944): "The Strange Mystery of the Leopard Woman"

The Leopard Woman
Not much mystery to it: Countess Kyra and her pet leopards kidnap the New York City Water Commissioner as part of a Nazi plot to poison the city reservoir.
Captain America Comics #36 (March 1944): "The General of Death"

General Von Savage
While the Allies plan an invasion of France, Gen. Von Savage leads a Nazi counter-invasion plot: a tunnel under the English Channel to strike at England.

All-Select Comics #3 (Spring 1944): "The Keeper of the Monsters"

Prince Suli Tatu the ape
Prince Suli robs a museum of jewels, then becomes a vagrant, intending to get arrested and let one set of police hide him from the other. In addition to this, he has two trained gorillas as aides.

On first reading this story, I thought Suli was calling one of the apes "Tatu". On re-reading it, it may be that "Tatu" is a command. It's only said once, so it can be read either way. I prefer to name the ape.

All-Winners Comics #12 (Spring 1944): "The Four Trials of Justice"

The Red Skull
Taking its cue from President Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" speech, the story has the Red Skull trying to "Nazify" residents at the Lakehorst Resort, and Cap bringing them each of the freedoms: from want, from fear, of religion, and of speech.
Young Allies Comics #11 (Spring 1944): "Osaki, the Murderous Jap"

Capt. Osaki
A bomber flying the Young Allies to the West Coast for a special bond rally is captured by Capt. Osaki, a spy who plans to bomb American sites with their own plane. The Young Allies escape from being tied to the bombs and drop them, and Osaki, on a Japanese aircraft carrier.

Young Allies Comics #12 (Spring 1944): "The Terror of the Jap Head"

The Head
This is just bizarre. There's a fat Japanese head atop a little rocket ship, zipping around and decapitating military leaders. With their heads on his mechanical heart, he can force them to tell the secrets in their brains.

And look at Whitewash on the cover, being heroic and not a hostage! No such luck for Jeff or Tubby, though.
Young Allies Comics #12 (Spring 1944): "The Master of Evil"

The Mad Mechanic Robot Soldier #3
The Mad Mechanic is a Nazi inventor. From a base in Switzerland, he sends machines of all sizes, from exploding wrist watches to robots to giant juggernaut vehicles, out to wreck Allied plans.

Young Allies Comics #14 (Fall 1944): "The Green Death!"

Baron Krugg
The Green Death
Baron Krugg sneaks into America (by hiding in a coffin among the returning war dead, the rat!) to guide the sabotage of war materials, starting with radium. The boys attack his gang, and he hides in the radium room -- to emerge hours later, glowing green and with the touch of death. He calls himself The Green Death (although everyone else calls him The Radium Man). The boys trap him in a uranium mine which collapses, killing him.
To the Post-War '40s